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Medical Imaging Center (MIC)

Multi-modality imaging facilities from the departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. Facility
Multi-modality imaging facilities from the departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine.
The MIC provides the medical imaging infrastructure and support for state-of-the-art research, ranging from preclinical studies to clinical trials. We offer extensive multidisciplinary expertise on medical imaging techniques such as PET, SPECT, CT, and MRI scanning in order to support researchers from the University Medical Centre Groningen (UMCG), the University of Groningen (UG), and external partners.
  • Molecular PET and SPECT imaging allows the visualization and quantification of physiological processes in the body by injecting a radioactively labelled tracer and monitoring its distribution with a dedicated scanner.
  • MRI scanners use a strong magnetic field and short radio waves to generate images of structures in the body. Some MRI procedures can generate information about tissue function.
  • CT scanners use X-rays to generate images of the body based on tissue density. Contrast agents may be used for MRI and CT scans.
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How to use our equipment

Before you can start using our equipment and facilities, your project has to be evaluated by an internal committee. Please contact our MIC Project Management Office for further information.

We always evaluate new requests. Before you can start using our equipment or facilities, we will make an arrangement. Our assigned instructors will provide training, if necessary.

  • The MIC provides advanced imaging equipment and facilities to allow cutting-edge preclinical and clinical research to be performed. In addition, support can be offered to researchers, which enables them to get the most out of their studies. For this purpose, a range of services can be offered, including:

    • Advice on how to optimize imaging techniques, procedures, and study design;
    • Implementation of clinical imaging procedures;
    • Making or training for making preclinical scans;
    • Development and validation of tracers;
    • Data management support;
    • Data transfer;
    • Data analysis training and support;
    • Project management;
    • Contract research.
    • Extensive experience with studies for pharmaceutical industries;
    • Close collaboration with nearby Contract Research Organizations;
    • High quality standards:
      • GMP licence
      • GCP training
      • NEN-EN-ISO 9001:2008 certified
      • The ‘Recognized for Excellence’ 4-star Award from the European Foundation for Quality Management;
    • For more information, please contact:
    • Researchers are advised to contact an MIC staff member (to be found on the website footer) to discuss the optimal imaging procedures for the research question at hand.
    • The definitive or draft study protocol, the imaging manual (if available) and the completed MIC application form have to be sent to the MIC for review. For studies with complex imaging procedures, researchers are advised to send the study protocol and the imaging manual (if available) to the MIC before submitting it to the Medical Ethics Review Board (METc).
    • Clinical studies involving imaging procedures or interventions at the MIC will be reviewed by the Research Advisory Committee (RAC).
    • The RAC will particularly assess the suitability of the proposed imaging modality, the feasibility of the requested procedures, and the available capacity.
    • After review by the RAC has taken place, a letter of agreement that includes the tariffs will be sent to the investigator.
    • The investigator must send the definitive study protocol, the imaging manual (if available), and the approval letter from the METc to the MIC before the start of the study.
    • If the studies include imaging procedures that deviate from standard of care, a kick-off meeting with relevant MIC staff members must be organized by the principal investigator before the start of the study.
    • The MIC’s small animal imaging equipment (PET, PET/CT, and PET/MRI) is located in the GronSAI facility on the premises of the UMCG’s Central Animal Facilities (CDP).
    • For advice on preclinical imaging procedures and study design, please contact Dr Janine Doorduin
    • Before reservations for the preclinical imaging equipment can be made, the protocols from the Animal Experiments Committee (CCD) and the Animal Welfare Body (IvD) must be sent to Dr Janine Doorduin  and Ing Jurgen W.A. Sijbesma. Researchers are advised to send the draft protocols for review to the MIC before submitting them as CCD and IvD protocols to avoid unnecessary amendments.
    • For individual training in the use of preclinical imaging equipment and experimental procedures, please contact Ing Jurgen W.A. Sijbesma.
    • For making reservations for the use of preclinical imaging equipment, please contact Ing Jurgen W.A. Sijbesma
    • The MIC can provide training in and assistance with data management and storage of imaging and associated data.
    • The MIC can help to anonymize and transfer scans to external parties.
    • Advanced imaging procedures often require sophisticated data analysis with dedicated software packages. The MIC can offer advice about data analysis methodology and train researchers in performing analyses.
    • For assistance with data management, data transfer, and data analysis, please contact the Project Management Office.
  • For our services, a fee will be charged that depends on the type of procedures and services requested. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you contact the MIC to discuss the expected costs before signing a contract, submitting a grant proposal, or initiating a new study.


  • For the production of:

    • [15O]water (half-life: 2 min.);
    • [13N]ammonia (half-life: 10 min.);
    • [11C]carbon dioxide or [11C]methane (half-life: 20 min.);
    • [18F]fluoride or [18F]fluorine gas (half-life: 110 min.).

Tracer production facilities

  • For:

    • The production of PET tracers for preclinical imaging studies;
    • The implementation and automation of new tracer production processes;
    • The development of new PET tracers;
    • Fundamental radiochemistry.
  • In particular:

    • Short-lived PET tracers labelled with 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, or 68Ga;
    • Long-lived PET tracers labelled with 89Zr (mainly antibodies and derivatives);
    • SPECT tracers labelled with 99mTc, 111In, or 123/131I;
    • Radiolabelled autologous blood cells;
    • Tracers for radionuclide therapy labelled with, for example, 177Lu.
  • For:

    • Quality control of PET and SPECT tracers;
    • Analysis of radioactive blood and urine samples.

PET tracers

  • For human use:

    • [13N]-NH3: Myocardial perfusion;
    • [15O]-H2O: Blood flow (brain/heart).
  • For human use:

    • [11C]-Choline: Membrane synthesis;
    • [11C]-DASB: Serotonin transporters;
    • [11C]-Flumazenil: GABAA receptors;
    • [11C]-MeDAS: Myelin basic protein(myelin density);
    • [11C]-Methionine: Amino acid transport (protein synthesis);
    • [11C]-Methylreboxetine: Norepinephrine transporters;
    • [11C]-PIB: Amyloid plaques;
    • [11C]-PK11195: TSPO receptors (neuroinflammation);
    • [11C]-Raclopride: Dopamine D2 receptors;
    • [11C]-UCB-J: Synaptic vesicle protein 2A (synaptic density).

    For preclinical imaging only:

    • [11C]-Deprenyl-D2: Monoamine oxidase B (astrocytosis);
    • [11C]-PBR28: TSPO receptors (neuroinflammation);
    • [11C]-Preladenant: Adenosine A2A receptors;
    • [11C]-Verapamil: P-glycoprotein.
  • For human use:

    • [18F]-Canagliflozin: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2;
    • [18F]-CETO: adrenal imaging (aldorosteron synthase);
    • [18F]-FDG: Glucose metabolism;
    • [18F]-FDHT: Androgen receptor;
    • [18F]-FDOPA: Amino acid decarboxylase (dopamine synthesis);
    • [18F]-FEOBV: Vesicular acetylcholine transporter;
    • [18F]-FES: Oestrogen receptor;
    • [18F]-IL2: IL-2 receptor (activation of T lymphocytes);
    • [18F]-MC225: P-glycoprotein;
    • [18F]-NaF: Degenerative or neoplastic bone (bone metastases);
    • [18F]-Olaparib: PARP expression;
    • [18F]-PSMA-1007: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (prostate cancer).

    For preclinical imaging only:

    • [18F]-FAZA: Hypoxia;
    • [18F]-FLT: DNA synthesis;
    • [18F]-FHBG: Herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase.
  • For human use:

    • [68Ga]-DOTATOC: Somatostatin receptors;
    • [68Ga]-FAPI-46: (tumor-associated) fibroblasts.
  • For human use:

    • [89Zr]-DFO-trastuzumab (Herceptin): HER-2 receptors;
    • [89Zr]-DFO-atezolizumab (Tecentriq): Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1);
    • [89Zr]-DFO-pembrolizumab (Keytruda): Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1);
    • [89Zr]-DFO-antibodies: For specific clinical trials (upon request).

    For preclinical imaging only:

    • [89Zr]-DFO-antibodies: For specific studies (upon request).

SPECT tracers

    • [123I]-MIBG: Myocardial sympathetic innervation, neuroblastoma;
    • [123I]-SAP: Amyloidosis;
    • [125I]-Iothalamate: Glomerular filtration;
    • [131I]-HSA: Blood and plasma volumes, perfusion leaks;
    • [131I]-Hippuran: Effective renal plasma flow;
    • [131I]-Norcholesterol: Adrenal function.
    • [99mTc]-Albumin aggregates (Maasol): Lung perfusion;
    • [99mTc]-CMC (carboxymethyl-cellulose): Gastric emptying;
    • [99mTc]-DMSA (Succimer): Kidney function;
    • [99mTc]-HDP (Technescan): Degenerative or neoplastic bone (bone metastases);
    • [99mTc]-HMPAO (Exametazime/Ceretec): Cerebral perfusion;
    • [99mTc]-HSA (human serum albumin): Gastrointestinal protein loss;
    • [99mTc]-Mebrofenin (Bridatec): Hepatobiliary function;
    • [99mTc]-Nanocolloid (NanoScan): Inflammatory foci, bone marrow;
    • [99mTc]-NephroMAG: Kidney function;
    • [99mTc]-Pertechnetate: Thyroid;
    • [99mTc]-Sestamibi: Myocardial perfusion, parathyroid gland;
    • [99mTc]-Tetrofosmin (Myoview): Myocardial perfusion.
    • 99mTc-labelled leukocytes: Infection, inflammation;
    • 99mTc-labelled erythrocytes: Blood pool imaging;
    • 99mTc-labelled erythrocytes (denatured): Spleen imaging.

Radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy

    • [90Y]-Yttrium citrate colloid: Hypertrophy of synovial membrane, bone metastases;
    • [90Y]-Yttrium microspheres: Hepatocellular carcinoma;
    • [131I]-MIBG: Neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumours, paraganglioma, medullary thyroid cancer;
    • [131I]-NaI: Thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism;
    • [153Sm]-EDTMP (Quadramet): Osteoblastic skeletal metastases;
    • [223Ra]-Radium dichloride: Symptomatic bone metastases, prostate cancer;
    • [177Lu]-compounds: For specific clinical trials;
    • [227Th]-compounds: For specific clinical trials;
    • [177Lu]-PSMA (available soon): Prostate cancer;
    • [177Lu]-DOTATATE (available soon): Neuroendocrine tumours

Positron Emission Tomography (PET/CT) scanners

    • Axial field of view: 104 cm;
    • Crystals: 3.2 mm LSO crystals;
    • Detector elements: Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) Axial;
    • TOF resolution: 210-215 ps;
    • CT: 128-slice Edge.
    • Crystals: 3.2 mm LSO crystals;
    • Detector elements: Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) Axial;
    • FOV: 26.1 cm;
    • TOF resolution: 210-215 ps;
    • CT: 128-slice Edge.
    • Crystals: 4 mm LSO crystals;
    • Detector elements: Photomultiplier tubes;
    • Axial FOV: 22.1 cm;
    • TOF resolution: 540 ps;
    • CT:40-slice Edge.

SPECT scanners

    • Variable-angle camera for cardiac, oncological, neurological, and general SPECT/CT imaging;
    • Crystals: 59.1 x 44.5 cm;
    • Detector elements: Bialkali high-efficiency box-type dynodes;
    • FOV: 53.3 cm;
    • Number of slices: 16.
    • Crystal thickness: 3/8” or 5/8”;
    • Detector dimension (FOV): 53.3 x 38.7 cm;
    • Energy range: 35-588 keV;
    • System sensitivity (LEHR at 10 cm): 202 cpm/μCi;
    • Acquisition modes: Static, dynamic, gated, SPECT, gated SPECT, dynamic SPECT, whole-body, whole-body SPECT, SPECT/CT, xSPECT;
    • Quantitative accuracy: ≤ 5%;
    • xSPECT Quant for SPECT/CT quantification;
    • 16 slice CT.

Bone density scanners (DEXA)

    • Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA);
    • The Hologic Discovery DXA system enables you to identify patients at risk of osteoporosis and other debilitating conditions.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners

    • Field strength: 1,5T;
    • Bore size: 60cm Open bore design;
    • Gradient strength: SQ Gradients 45/200 simultaneously.
    • Field strength: 1.5 Tesla;
    • Bore size: 70 cm Open Bore design;
    • Gradient strength: XJ Gradients (33 mT/m @ 125 T/m/s), XQ Gradients (45 mT/m @ 200 T/m/s).
    • Field strength: 3 Tesla;
    • Bore size: 70 cm Open Bore design;
    • Gradient strength: XQ Gradients (45 mT/m @ 200 T/m/s).
    • Field strength: 3 Tesla;
    • Bore size: 60 cm;
    • Gradient strength: XR Gradients (80 mT/m @ 200 T/m/s).

Computed Tomography (CT) scanners

    • High-end dual-source CT system;
    • 82 cm bore;
    • Quantum photon-counting detection technology;
    • 2× Vectrontm X-ray tubes;
    • 2x QuantaMaxtm Detectors;
    • Standard mode resolution: 0.2 mm in-plane and 0.4 mm slice thickness;
    • Ultra-high resolution mode: 0.11 mm in-plane and 0.2 mm slice thickness;
    • Temporal resolution: 66 ms.
    • Single Source CT scanner;
    • Gantry opening: 78 cm;
    • Multislice UFCTM (Ultra Fast Ceramics) Detector;
    • 64 slices;
    • Isotropic resolution: 0.33 mm.
    CT scanner AS
    • Dual-source CT scanner;
    • Ultra-low dose scanning;
    • Gantry opening: 78 cm;
    • 2 x VectronTM X-ray tubes;
    • 2 x StellarInfinity detectors with anti-scatter 3D collimator grid;
    • 384 (2 x 192) slices;
    • Spatial resolution: 0.24 mm.

Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT)

    • Optoacoustic + Ultrasound (OPUS) imaging mode;
    • Frame rate: up to 50 Hz (optoacoustic), up to 20 Hz (ultrasound);
    • Laser wavelength: 680-980 nm/660-1300 nm;
    • Peak pulse energy: 30 mJ;
    • Spatial resolution: 80-400 µm (detector-dependent).

Small animal imaging

    • Axial FOV: 9.6 cm (co-scan range for docked system);
    • Transaxial FOV: 10 cm;
    • PET: Resolution at centre of FOV: 1.4 mm;
    • PET: System sensitivity: 10%;
    • CT: Maximum spatial resolution @10% MTF: ≤ 40 μm with FOV of 3.2 x 2.1 cm.
    • Axial FOV: 7.6 cm;
    • Transaxial FOV: 19 cm;
    • Resolution at centre of FOV: <1.3 mm;
    • Volumetric resolution (central 8 cm): < 9 µl;
    • System sensitivity: 4%;
    • Respiratory and cardiac gating;
    • Interchangable beds for mice and rats.
    • Simultaneous PET and MRI acquisition
    • PET specifications
      • Detector: Double Layers, LYSO/LYSO, 10 mm
      • Silicon photomultipliers
      • Axial field of view: 15.0 cm
      • Trans-axial field of view: 8.0 cm
      • Spatial resolution (3D OSEM): 0.7 mm
      • Sensitivity: up to 11%
    • MRI specifications
      • MRS*DRYMAG
      • Field strength: 3.0 T
      • Gradient strength: up to 2000 mT/m


University Medical Center Groningen
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (NGMB) 
Medical Imaging Center
PO Box 30.001
9700 RB Groningen
The Netherlands

Visiting address
University Medical Center Groningen
Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (NGMB) 
Medical Imaging Center
Hanzeplein 1
9713 GZ Groningen